The Pays d'art et d'histoire Pyrénées béarnaises covers a territory with a history and identity marked geographically.
On the territory of piedmont surrounding Oloron Sainte-Marie alternate alluvial plains and first Pyrenean foothills. The whole of the municipalities of the territory includes a great architectural variety ranging from the traditional farm, to the contemporary architectural creations (Media Library of the Gaves, Silver Square 2011), passing by the houses lined up on the streets, seigneurial residences, small heritage and industrial buildings.
The Baretous Valley has an archaeological heritage little known to date, and also offers landscapes of karst reliefs among the most important in Europe at La Pierre Saint-Martin. Traditional architecture and the houses of former musketeers of King Louis XIII (Aramis, Portos, etc.) are strong markers for this valley whose pastoral activity always allows to maintain landscapes and know-how.
The Aspe Valley is marked by the importance of its landscapes, by the links that unite it with the neighbouring Aragonese Valley, to a vernacular heritage, of important path, and linked to agro-pastoral activities. The habitat is imbued with the great characteristics of the grouped mountain houses. The architectural jewel of the Aspe Valley remains the Portalet Fort, dating from the 19th century, which housed famous people during and after the Second World War.
The Ossau Valley is made up of landscape sites protected and valued by the agro-pastoral activity whose origin dates back to protohistory. The diversity of its civil and religious built heritage reflects the impact of its rich and dense history. The importance of its traditions is reflected in the very present traditional ways of expression and know-how. Industrial history related to marble quarrying, hydroelectricity, is a strong marker of this territory.